Vitis vinifera is a grape species within the genus Vitis that originates in Europe around the Mediterranean sea, central Europe and West Asia. All classic European cultivated wine grapes such as Cabernet sauvignon, Gamay, Pinot noir, Viognier and Riesling are Vitis vinifera grape varieties. Nowadays they are planted in vineyards all over the world. These Vitis vinifera varieties are vulnerable to phylloxera and therefore rarely have their own root systems (own-rooted). They are crafted on rootstocks that provide a higher resistance against phylloxera. The rootstock often consists of a cross of American grape varieties such as Vitis berlandieri, Vitis labrusca, Vitis riparia, or Vitis rupestris.